Nosilec dodiplomskega programa

Če ste eden izmed koordinatorjev za  dodiplomske študijske programe, vam predstavljamo nekaj usmeritev za zagotavljanje večje podpore študentom pri prehodu iz srednješolske na visokošolsko raven izobraževanja:

  • “Nelson and colleagues (2006, p. 1) argue that […] first-year students have special needs based on the transition experience” (Bowles et al., 2014: 214)
  • “University education (in the first-year and beyond) proceeds on the assumption that students have already developed the skills needed to succeed as a learner, or that they will develop them naturally as they progress through their courses. However, many first-year students appear to struggle a great deal with adapting to the demands of being an independent learner in a university context.” (Cameron & Rideout, 2022: 669)
  • Tate and Swords (2013) found that “some students are not concerned as much about the transition in terms of subject content […] but more about the different skills required to study for a degree.” (Ferreira, 2018: 374). Programme coordinators can develop greater awareness of these concerns amongst academics on their programmes and support academics to include approaches in their modules to address these concerns as a complementary measure to other university supports for first year students.
  • Programme coordinators can work with academics on their programmes in gleaning and understanding of the different transition journeys of students and its importance in providing an inclusive environment where all students can thrive (See: Charalambous, 2020: 1420).
  • “Understanding issues relating to student transition into the higher education context is an important aspect of module design, linking content, delivery, and assessment with a student’s prior educational experience and knowledge bases” (Barr & Jackson, 2018: 390)
  • Programme coordinators of first-year programmes “should develop core links with other stakeholders involved in secondary education” and “efforts to support the transitions should have a broader focus than the subject content but to focus on the skills too” (Ferreira, 2018, p. 374).
  • Programme coordinators can audit students for areas of support needed and provide time and space for life-skills based tutorials and workshops as required and appropriate provide exemplar artifacts of learning for students (See
  • “The basic norms of being a university student need to be clearly explained and continually reinforced early in the first semester” (Gibney et al., 2011: 363-364). Programme coordinators can clearly communicate expectations throughout the curriculum (See: Pownall et al., 2022: 6) and they can provide support in helping students to navigate the “unspoken rules” of academia taking note not to assume prior knowledge about university life and paying particular attention to the notion that students will not have received as much pre university knowledge in their transition to university (Ibid: 10).
  • Supporting students must not be delegated to support services only. It has been shown by research that transition policies that do not include core academic delivery are rarely effective (e.g. Pollard & Bamford, 2022).   “University support systems and the personalised, systematic help offered by academic staff are perceived of utmost significance for remaining in HE and not dropping out”(Katartzi & Hayward, 2020: 2377). Programme coordinators can provide a “one-stop-shop” for programme information for both staff and students whereby students can see the range of supports offered by academic and support staff alike (See, for example:
  • Programme coordinators can highlight the “need to know”/ “emergency” information at initial induction and where students can find information as required throughout the course/programme and ensure that there is transparency, accuracy and consistency of information about the programme and its place within the wider university. This can be aided by resources such as a checklist of expectations for students that is fair and explicit.
  • Programme coordinators can develop partnerships with services and persons who can support students, like student services, study centres, other faculties (see: Lawrence, 2002:. 7) to ensure that students understand the different roles of the programme/university staff and to ensure that the relevant communication protocols for each are very clear.
  • Programme coordinators can communicate outcomes of the relevant courses and purpose within an overarching programme and/or career pathway as relevant.
  • “It needs to be acknowledged that students and lecturers have joint responsibility for student success: a first stage in accepting such responsibility would be to gain a better understanding of the complex processes that seem to influence students’ academic success.” (Hassel & Ridout, 2018: 12). Furthermore, “the building of trusting and respectful relationships is key to student success and belonging” (Meehan & Howells, 2019: 1388-1389). A study by Gill (2021: 429) found that “developing relationships between academic staff and students in the early stages of their course” was something that helped support their transition to university.
  • “Being valued by academic staff and the institution itself has had a profound impact on the students, supporting their transition to higher education” (Gill, 2021: 426). Programme coordinators can set up a formal student rep system and organise regular meetings and ensure a two-way system of communication that is clear and respectful that is about best practice and not only for problem reporting.
  • “Positive interactions with university faculty and staff can provide valuable information, instill a sense of belonging in college, and foster students’ career identities” (Hagler et al., 2021: 3).
  • “Thomas (2012) reported that in order to nurture ‘belonging’, academic staff are central to this process. Academics can provide opportunities for students to develop peer relationships, engage in meaningful interactions, and link the emergent knowledge and confidence of the students to their aspirations for their future goals.” (Meehan & Howells, 2019: 1386). Programme coordinators can review module content and facilitation on a regular basis taking on board the views of staff, students, external examiners and potential employers.
  • “Transition is regarded as a process rather than an event, with curriculum as the central thread that integrates approaches to transition through policy, resource and practice across all areas of the institution” (Bowles et al., 2014: 215)
  • Collaborate with academics on the programme to build a culture of trust and collegiality – create a community of practice for the programme where there is a democratic and collegial approach to the running for the programme.
  • Create time and space within the programme structure for the sharing of good practice so that there is “joined up” thinking across the modules on the programme.
  • Harness the internal expertise of the team and provide opportunities to inject new perspectives from external sources as required.
  • Create awareness of the support within the University for teaching, learning and assessment.
  • Create an online space for sharing or resources approaches across the programme.
  • Set up clear academic advising and pastoral care structures for the programme that is supportive of all students.
  • Schedule the activities and assessment for the programme in a holistic and coordinated manner to avoid bottlenecks in exams or assignment submission and grading (See also: Lawrence, 2002: 7).

Sodelovanje je ključnega pomena za učenje in vključevanje študentov. Zato je pomembno, da študentom omogočimo več načinov vključevanja (v smislu vsebine predmeta, vrst učnih dejavnosti in načinov prikazovanja učenja - glej na primer univerzalno oblikovanje za učenje (UDL)).

Vključenost študentov se bo povečala tudi tako, da bodo akademiki pokazali, da jim ni vseeno za vsebino predmeta ter za učenje in dobro počutje študentov.

Koordinatorji programov se lahko povežejo z akademiki glede vsebine predmetov in učnih pristopov ter zagotovijo priložnosti za strokovno učenje in izmenjavo dobrih praks.

Vključenost študentov v predavanja se bo povečala s privlačno vsebino predmeta, ki temelji na spodbujanju različnih učnih pristopov ter z akademiki, ki bodo pokazali, da jim ni vseeno.

Koordinatorji programov lahko zagotovijo, da se moduli, v katerih so velike skupine, po možnosti podprejo z vajami v manjših skupinah, kjer se lahko študenti med seboj spoznajo in razvijejo bolj osebne odnose.


Študenti pogosto trpijo za sindromom prevaranta in imajo občutek, da ne pripadajo univerzi ali svojemu študiju. Univerza mora študentom dati pošteno priložnost, da preverijo, ali so se odločili prav. V eni izmed raziskav je bilo zapisano:  “University staff (academic, administrative and academic support) all have a significant role in support[ing] the students’ feelings of ‘connectedness’ to the university by regular, open and clear communication, relationships that provide stability and provide genuine concern and empathy for the challenges faced by students in transition. The building of trusting and respectful relationships is key to student success and belonging” (Meehan & Howells, 2019: 1388-1389).


Študenti prvega letnika so v prehodnem obdobju. Imajo različna izhodišča in mnogi med njimi se morajo še naučiti, kako se učiti na univerzitetni ravni. Študenti se morda ne zavedajo zahtev posameznih predmetov. Tega ne morejo razrešiti le podporna služba, pač pa je potrebno stalno spodbujanje s strani visokošolskih učiteljev in asistentov.

Koordinatorji programov lahko krepijo zmogljivosti akademske ekipe, ki bo sodelovala pri programu, tako, da spodbujajo skupnost pri izmenjavi znanja, izkušenj  in dobrih praks. Omogočijo lahko povezave med akademiki, ki poučujejo študente prvega letnika, in njihovimi srednjimi šolami. Poleg tega bi lahko spodbudili zavedanje o tem, iz kje prihajajo študenti prvega letnika, tako da bi vzpostavili nekaj formalnega strokovnega razvoja v zvezi s prehodom iz srednješolskega v visokošolsko izobraževanje. To bo akademikom, vključenim v program, omogočilo oblikovanje vsebine predmetov glede na predznanje študentov. Koordinatorji programa morajo zagotoviti, da se vsi akademiki, vključeni v program, zavedajo vseh dodatnih potreb študentov, tako, da se povežejo s podpornimi službami na univerzi. Koordinatorji programov morajo tudi zagotoviti, da je ustrezno akademsko osebje podprto pri prehodni pedagogiki, kjer je to primerno:

  • Nov akademski jezik za študente
  • Novi načini  ocenjevanja
  • Nove oblike samostojnega dela za študente
  • Pomoč študentom pri organizaciji časa
  • Pomoč študentom pri iskanju virov informacij in citiranju
  • Pomoč pri uporabi spletnih orodji in spletnih učnih okoljih



Študente prvega letnika je treba vključiti v razpravo o tem, kaj jih spodbuja pri učenju. Akademiki  morajo poiskati načine, kako študente vključiti v nove - in morda zahtevne - strategije učenja in jim pojasniti, zakaj so te pomembne za njihovo akademsko rast.

Koordinatorji programov se lahko povežejo s koordinatorji predmetov, da bi v predmete vključili možnost razprave v okviru predavanj/vaj ali zunaj njih.


Ne pozabite, da ste na univerzi "domačini" in da so številna pravila, ki so postala del vaše podzavesti, samoumevna. Študenti prvega letnika so v nasprotnem primeru "tujci", ki so se znašli v novi v univerzitetni kulturi in ne poznajo pravil. Ne vedo, kaj se pričakuje od univerzitetnega študenta. Ne vedo, kako se obrniti po pomoč in sodelovati s tistimi, ki jih želijo podpreti pri učenju. Ne vedo, kakšna pričakovanja in zahteve nosi njihov program, določen predmet ali določen akademik.

Akademikom se svetuje, da na začetku nekaj časa namenijo temu, da pojasnijo osnovna pravila in pričakovanja ter študente po potrebi opomnijo nanje med izvajanjem predmeta. 

Koordinatorji programov lahko zagotovijo, da so informacije pripravljene in na voljo študentom in zaposlenim ter da so pravila programa jasno razložena v širšem kontekstu univerze. Ustrezne povezave do vseh protokolov institucije se lahko vključijo na spletno stran z namenom lažjega dostopa skozi celotno študijsko leto. Ta dokument se mora stalno posodabljati, saj se nanj po potrebi sklicujejo tako akademiki kot tudi študenti. Koordinatorji programov lahko študentom sporočijo, da morajo najprej poiskati informacije v ustreznem repozitoriju, preden se z vprašanji obrnejo na posamezne visokošolske učitelje ali asistente po elektronski pošti.

To bo pomagalo študentom, saj bodo vidna in jasna pričakovanja programa, poleg tega pa se bodo izognili informacijski praznini, ki bi nastala zaradi napačnih predpostavk o predhodnem znanju študentov. 

Koordinatorji programov lahko omogočijo, da se na programu dogovorijo o tem, kako naj študenti stopijo v stik z visokošolskimi učitelji ali asistenti. Jasno je treba pojasniti bonton elektronske pošte, študentom in akademikom pa je treba nazorno pokazati, kako kakovostno uporabljati virtualna učna okolja, v kolikor se bodo uporabljala kot komunikacijsko sredstvo.


Tisti, ki poučujejo študente prvega letnika, imajo posebno vlogo pri podpori njihovega prehoda na visokošolsko raven izobraževanja. Gre za strokovno bogato izkušnjo, ki pa je hkrati lahko tudi izziv. Zato je pomembno, da se akademiki počutijo kot del skupnosti prakse - skupine kolegov, s katerimi lahko delijo svoje znanje in od katerih se lahko učijo tudi sami, ob enem pa čutijo podporo.

Delo v skupini je pomembno tudi za razvijanje usklajenega pristopa in doslednosti pri različnih predmetih/modulih prvega letnika. To omogoči razvoj razumevanja, kako so različni programski predmeti med seboj povezani in kako se med seboj nadgrajujejo.

Koordinatorji programov lahko združujejo  skupnost tako, da organizirajo prostor in čas za formalna in neformalna srečanja akademikov in študentov. To lahko podprete z organizacijo dogodkov za zaposlene in študente, s čimer jim pokažete, da vam ni vseeno (npr. organizacija preprostih stvari, kot so jutranje kave, ima učinek).


Vključevanje je temelj vseh elementov okvira "Akademiki zmorejo". Zaradi širitve udeležbe so skupine študentov vedno bolj raznolike, akademiki pa imajo ključno vlogo pri zagotavljanju, da se vključevanje dejansko kaže na univerzi. Da bi se počutili vključene, morajo imeti vsi študenti občutek, da so aktivni, to pa se lahko spodbuja z načini komuniciranja akademikov s študenti, zasnovo predmetov, odločitvami na ravni programa ter univerzitetnimi politikami in praksami. 

Koordinatorji programov lahko ozavestijo, da imajo študenti različne predispozicije pri učenju, zato je koristno, da akademiki po potrebi diferencirajo svoje vsebine in učne pristope, koordinatorji programov pa lahko po potrebi organizirajo dodatno podporo za študente in akademike.


Da bi študentje akademsko rasli, morajo vedeti, kako dobro jim gre študij in kako lahko pri učenju napredujejo. Študenti prvih letnikov so še posebej negotovi glede pričakovanih standardov, časa, ki ga morajo posvetiti učenju zunaj predavalnice, in glede tega, kako najbolje organizirati svoj čas. Ne vedo, ali morajo spremeniti svoje strategije  učenja in kako oceniti kakovost svojega dela.

Kadar študenti niso prepričani o teh stvareh, vedno pogosteje prosijo za povratne informacije. Čeprav te povratne informacije potrebujejo, ni nujno, da jih vedno posredujejo akademiki. Akademiki lahko uporabijo različne pristope konstruktivne povratne informacije, ki breme prenesejo nazaj na študenta, in sicer v obliki samoocenjevanja in medsebojnega ocenjevanja, podprtega z rubrikami in vzorčnimi odgovori, ki jih študenti kritizirajo, itd.


Vsaka univerza ima na voljo vrsto podpornih služb. Te so študentom v pomoč pri vprašanjih, ki presegajo okvir akademske vloge. Zaželeno je, da so akademiki seznanjeni z vrstami podpornih služb, da lahko študente usmerijo k njim.

Ustvarjanje spodbudnega učnega okolja pa je neposredna odgovornost akademikov.


Raziskave so jasno pokazale, da je "dostopnost" akademikov za študente pomembna [npr. Charalambous, 2020; Ekornes, 2022; Gill, 2021; Kift in Nelson, 2005; Pollard in Bamford, 2022].

Mnogi študenti opustijo študij, ker ne dobijo pomoči, ki jo potrebujejo in ko jo potrebujejo. To se prepogosto zgodi, ker študenti ne zaprosijo za pomoč. Morda so premalo ozaveščeni/zaupljivi glede načina, kako lahko pristopijo k akademikom, zato jih je treba izrecno seznaniti z možnostmi, ki so jim na voljo za komunikacijo z akademiki.

Vendar pa je treba najti ravnovesje med dostopnostjo in neobvladljivo delovno obremenitvijo zaradi vprašanj študentov, ki jih je mogoče učinkoviteje obravnavati na druge načine. Pri tem je lahko v pomoč dogovorjen protokol o tem, kako naj študenti stopijo v stik z akademiki na določenem programu. Na primer, jasno je treba opredeliti pravila pošiljanja elektronske pošte, študentom in akademikom pa je treba nazorno razložiti, kako pravilno uporabljati vsa virtualna učna okolja, če se bodo uporabljala kot komunikacijsko sredstvo.


Mnogi študenti prvih letnikov so navdušeni nad novo pridobljeno svobodo, vendar se pri spremljanju svojega učenja preveč zanašajo na akademike. Zato je del naloge akademikov, da študentom pomagajo, da se naučijo, kako postopoma postati bolj samostojni pri učenju. Ne pozabite, da se študenti še vedno učijo, kako organizirati socialno življenje s  študijskimi zahteve.


Akademiki lahko študentom pomagajo pri prehodu na univerzitetno raven izobraževanja na več načinov. Morda je najpomembnejše, da lahko akademiki podpirajo študente na poti k doseganju njihovega polnega potenciala. To vključuje spoznanje, kdaj določen študent potrebuje dodatno pomoč ali, nasprotno, kdaj potrebuje dodaten izziv. Poleg tega lahko akademiki pomagajo prepoznati študente, katerih potencial ne ustreza izbiri programa/predmeta/univerze, in jih po potrebi usmerjajo k podporni službi.

Pomembni citati:

  • Universities need to understand the different transition journeys of students to provide an inclusive environment where all students can thrive (Charalambous, 2020: 1420)
  • Develop partnerships with services and persons who can support students, like Student Services, study centres, other faculties (Lawrence, 2002: 7)
  • Help students overcome their fear of asking questions, approaching faculty members, asking for help (Charalambous, 2020)
  • Help students feel engaged – “A good relationship with teachers has been found to be particularly important for some at-risk students to feel engaged (Croninger and Lee 2001; Drewry, Burge, and Driscoll 2010)” (Elffers, 2012: 46)
  • ‘Adjust’ “levels of support” as students learn to learn more independently (see: Wos & Cross (n.d.))
  • It needs to be acknowledged that students and lecturers have joint responsibility for student success: a first stage in accepting such responsibility would be to gain a better understanding of the complex processes that seem to influence students’ academic success.” (Hassel & Ridout, 2018: 12)
  • If students feel valued by academics, they feel more connected to the university (Gill, 2021)
  • Recommendation 4: Provide support in helping students to navigate the “unspoken rules” of academia and avoid assuming prior knowledge about university life, paying particular attention to the notion that students will not have received as much pre university knowledge in their transition to university.” (Pownall et al., 2022: 10)
  • Recommendation 1: Clearly communicate expectations throughout the curriculum, with an emphasis on supported formative assessments, work in partnership with students, and champion flexibility.” (Pownall et al., 2022:  6)
  • “Developing a strong identity as a university learner during first-year university is important because it will encourage students to persist and provide some resilience in the face of future academic challenges.” (Cameron & Rideout, 2022: 680)   
  • Ways in which Teachers teach can affect how learners learn – and how first-year students (learn to) approach learning (see Ribeiro et al., 2019: 10)
  • It needs to be acknowledged that students and lecturers have joint responsibility for student success: a first stage in accepting such responsibility would be to gain a better understanding of the complex processes that seem to influence students’ academic success. (Hassel & Ridout, 2018: 12)


  • Barr, M., & Jackson, L. H. (2018). Enhancing Delivery and Assessment: A Case Study in Module Redesign for Improved Transition Into Higher Education. Journal of Political Science Education, 14(3), 390–399.
  • Bowles, A., Fisher, R., McPhail, R., Rosenstreich, D., & Dobson, A. (2014). Staying the distance: Students’ perceptions of enablers of transition to higher education. Higher Education Research & Development, 33(2), 212–225.
  • Cameron, R. B., & Rideout, C. A. (2022). ‘It’s been a challenge finding new ways to learn’: First-year students’ perceptions of adapting to learning in a university environment. Studies in Higher Education, 47(3), 668–682.
  • Charalambous, M. (2020). Variation in transition to university of life science students: Exploring the role of academic and social self-efficacy. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 44(10), 1419–1432.
  • Cifuentes Gomez, G., Guzmán, P., & Santelices, M. V. (2022). Transitioning to higher education: Students’ expectations and realities. Educational Research, 64(4), 424–439.
  • Ekornes, S. (2022). The impact of perceived psychosocial environment and academic emotions on higher education students’ intentions to drop out. Higher Education Research & Development, 41(4), 1044–1059.
  • Elffers, L. (2012). One foot out the school door? Interpreting the risk for dropout upon the transition to post-secondary vocational education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 33(1), 41–61.
  • Ferreira, J. (2018). Facilitating the transition: Doing more than bridging the gap between school and university geography. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 42(3), 372–383.
  • Gibney, A., Moore, N., Murphy, F., & O’Sullivan, S. (2011). The first semester of university life; ‘will I be able to manage it at all?’ Higher Education, 62(3), 351–366.
  • Gill, A. J. G. (2021). Difficulties and support in the transition to higher education for non-traditional students. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 26(4), 410–441.
  • Hagler, M. A., Christensen, K. M., & Rhodes, J. E. (2021). A Longitudinal Investigation of First-Generation College Students’ Mentoring Relationships During Their Transition to Higher Education. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 152102512110227.
  • Hassel, S., & Ridout, N. (2018). An Investigation of First-Year Students’ and Lecturers’ Expectations of University Education. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 2218.
  • Katartzi, E., & Hayward, G. (2020). Transitions to higher education: The case of students with vocational background. Studies in Higher Education, 45(12), 2371–2381.
  • Kift, S., & Nelson, K. (2005). Beyond curriculum reform: Embedding the transition experience. Proceedings of the 28th HERDSA Annual Conference, 225–235.
  • Knoesen, R., & Naudé, L. (2018). Experiences of flourishing and languishing during the first year at university. Journal of Mental Health, 27(3), 269–278.
  • Lawrence, J. (2002, July). The ‘deficit-discourse’ shift: University teachers and their role in helping first year students persevere and succeed in the new university culture. 6th Pacific Rim First Year in Higher Education Conference: Changing Agendas ‘Te Ao Hurihuri’, Christchurch, New Zealand.
  • Meehan, C., & Howells, K. (2019). In search of the feeling of ‘belonging’ in higher education: Undergraduate students transition into higher education. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 43(10), 1376–1390.
  • Moore-Cherry, N., Quin, S., & Burroughs, E. (n.d.). Why Students Leave: Findings From Qualitative Research Into Student Non-completion In Higher Education In Ireland (Focused Research Report No. 4). National Forum for the Enhancement of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education.
  • Pollard, L., & Bamford, J. (2022). Lost in transition: Student journeys and becoming—Deliberations for a post‐COVID era. The Curriculum Journal, 33(3), 346–361.
  • Pownall, M., Harris, R., & Blundell-Birtill, P. (2022). Supporting students during the transition to university in COVID-19: Five key considerations and recommendations for educators. Psychology Learning & Teaching, 21(1), 3–18.
  • Ribeiro, L., Rosário, P., Núñez, J. C., Gaeta, M., & Fuentes, S. (2019). First-Year Students Background and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Student Engagement. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2669.
  • Wos, A., & Cross, C. (n.d.). The criticality of blended communities in empowering learner transition in Higher Education. Institute for Curriculum Enhancement, Lancaster University.


Critically using and creating knowledge by engaging with disciplinary discourses and formulating arguments